Normally when I write a blog post, it’s because some topic was rattling around in my head too much and I want to get it out of there. This works most of the time, and after hitting publish I tend to stop thinking as often about whatever it is I wrote about. Sometimes however, this works in reverse and my initial post sparks me and various readers/others in my life to keep talking about the topic. My last post on fertility rates was of the latter group, and I’ve spent the past week discussing it with people both online and in real life. The roundup below is 5 of the most interesting things that came out of those discussions:
- Male fertility is dropping I mentioned last week that while fertility rates are always counted in children/woman, we shouldn’t forget the role of men in the whole thing. To help prove that point, commenter Christopher B pointed me to an interesting article I hadn’t seen about dropping sperm counts in Western men. According to the meta-analysis cited, sperm counts have dropped 50-60% since about 1973. There wasn’t a particular reason cited, but the Assistant Village Idiot mentioned sleep deprivation, and the authors didn’t rule out chemical exposures or increasing obesity. I also found a paper that found that “After adjusting for female age, conception during a 12-month period was 30% less likely for men over age 40 years as compared with men younger than age 30 years”. This is almost certainly playing a role in dropping fertility rates, particularly if you approach it from the “why don’t people have 3 or more children as often anymore?” angle. If you struggle to have a first child, you may pay for infertility treatments, but very few people go through the time and expense of them for a third child. The biggest impact however, may be on my next topic…..
- Reducing unplanned pregnancies reduces fertility rates The sentiments “lower teen pregnancy rate” and it’s close cousin “reduce unintended pregnancies” are pretty non-controversial as far as public health goals go. While the methods proposed to meet these goals can be quite controversial (abortion, free birth control, abstinence only education, etc), most people actually agree on the end game. Thus when we look at the fertility rate and why it’s dropping, we have to consider that 45% of pregnancies in America are still considered “unintended”, with about 40% of those ending in an abortion. This got me wondering a few things. First, I wonder if the dropping sperm counts have actually impacted how frequently unplanned pregnancies occur. Teen pregnancy rates have been trending downward for quite some time, and one wonders if that’s been helped by things like dropping sperm counts. It’s probably not the whole reason, but it certainly seems unlikely to hurt.
- Our messages around teen and unplanned pregnancies may bleed over in to our thinking about planned pregnancies. One of the posts that kicked off all my thoughts on fertility rates was this one by the Assistant Village Idiot. I don’t know that I agreed with the example he gave, but the core thought of his post seems true: it is really really hard to discourage teens from having babies without saying things about how challenging kids are or how important it is that you have your ducks in a row before you have them. I mean, imagine that you find out that a 15 year old you know and care about is having unprotected sex with a partner. What do you say to them? Your first thoughts are almost certainly about how many opportunities they’ll be giving up and how much work kids are. This is the dominate message most kids receive until at least 18, longer if they’re college bound, and almost always including some time to figure yourself out. Even groups that don’t necessarily support the “figure yourself out” phase tend to have their own pressures. For example, in my Baptist high school, you definitely needed to find someone to marry first (that you wouldn’t divorce), and you needed to have enough money to make sure you never had to rely on welfare. The point here is not that any of this advice is wrong, but rather that it’s the dominant message for the first 10-15 years most people are biologically capable of having children, and people likely take them to heart for much longer than that.
- Kin influence One of the more interesting theories I read while reading up on fertility rates was the theory of “kin influence”. As I mentioned, it’s been noted that increased education drops fertility rates quite quickly. One proposed mechanism for this is that it’s not necessarily what education adds, but what it subtracts: 24-7 time around your family. The idea is that biologically, your family has a high motivation to encourage you to have kids, because this helps your families DNA continue. Educators and friends may care for you, but they don’t not have the same interest in encouraging you to have kids. Interestingly, even in the developed world, people who live closer/are closer emotionally to their family tend to have more children. Some of this is likely also related to resources…most people take advantage of grandma/grandpa babysitters before they look at other options. The paper didn’t mention it, but I have to wonder how this theory overlaps with the issues in #3. Parents tend to be some of the strongest voices telling teens not to get pregnant, which suggests that development doesn’t just shift the attitudes of those who might be having children, but the generation above them as well. When fertility rates fall rapidly in a country like Iran, is that all men and women of childbearing age deciding to have fewer children, or are their own parents there encouraging them to take advantage of more educational opportunities first?
- Child mortality rates To end on a sad note, it’s terrible to realize that some of the very high fertility rates in the developing world may actually be driven by child mortality. While it’s hard to prove causality, it appears that everywhere child mortality drops, fertility rates drop with it. From Our World in Data: This is a good reminder that countries with total fertility rates of 6 children/woman or more almost never result in families of 6 adult children, and that our drops in fertility rate aren’t always as dramatic as they sound. For example, in the year 1800 in the US, the fertility rate was nearly 7 children/woman, while today it is just under 2. However, if you factor child mortality in, the drop is much less dramatic: I don’t know exactly what to make of this, but I can speculate that if you have good confidence your children will live, you may plan more for each of their births. It also just reminds me how grateful I am to live in this time period.
Overall this has been an interesting discussion and I appreciate everyone’s comments!