A Loss for so Many

I was greatly saddened to hear late on Monday that a long time friend of mine, Carolyn Scerra, died on Monday of ovarian cancer. She was 35, and leaves behind a husband and a two year old daughter.

Carolyn was a high school science teacher, and she had promoted my Intro to Internet Science series and given me feedback based on her experiences in the classroom. A year ago, before her illness had made its ugly appearance, I got to speak to her class in person and see her at work. A fire alarm went off half way through my presentation, and we actually finished most of it in the parking lot. We laughed as she held her laptop up so they could see my slides and I talked about lizard people, while other classes looked on in confusion. Through it all she kept the class orderly, calm, and engaged. We had a great discussion about science education and how to support kids and science teachers, and it was a great day despite the interruptions. She was great at what she did, and I was honored to be part of it.

When she got sick in November, she ended up at my workplace for her treatment. I was able to see her a few times during some of her hospitalizations and chemo treatments, and we still talked about science. I would tell her about the latest clinical trials we were working on and we would talk about genetics research and cancer, some of which I turned in to a post. For many people that would not have been a soothing conversation, but it was for Carolyn. She liked to think about the science behind what was going on and where the science was going, even as the best science was failing her. When another friend taught her how to paint, she started painting representations of how the chemotherapy looked in her blood and would interact with the cancer cells. That’s the kind of person she was.

This is a huge loss for so many, and I will truly miss her. Science has lost an advocate, a community has lost an amazing person, kids lost a great teacher, her family has lost a daughter/sister/cousin, and her husband and daughter have lost a wife and mother. A fundraiser has been set up for her family here.

May peace find all of them.

Calling BS Read-Along Week 12: Refuting Bullshit

Welcome to the Calling Bullshit Read-Along based on the course of the same name from Carl Bergstorm and Jevin West  at the University of Washington. Each week we’ll be talking about the readings and topics they laid out in their syllabus. If you missed my intro and want the full series index, click here or if you want to go back to Week 11 click here.

Well guys, we made it! Week 12, the very last class. Awwwwwwwe, time flies when you’re having fun.

This week we’re going to take a look at refuting bullshit, and as usual we have some good readings to guide us. Amusingly, there’s only 3 readings this week, which puts the course total for “readings about bullshit”  at an order of magnitude higher than the count for “readings about refuting bullshit”.  I am now dubbing this the “Bullshit Assignment Asymmetry Principle: In any class about bullshit, the number of readings dedicated to learning about bullshit will be an order of magnitude higher than the number of readings dedicated to refuting it”. Can’t refute what you can’t see.

Okay, so first up in the readings is the short-but-awesome “Debunking Handbook” by John Cook and Stephan Lewandowsky. This pamphlet lays out a compelling case that truly debunking a bad fact is a lot harder than it looks and must be handled with care. When most of us encounter an error, we believe throwing information at the problem will help. The Debunking Handbook points out a few issues:

  1. Don’t make the falsehood familiar A familiar fact feels more true than an unfamiliar one, even if we’re only familiar with it because it’s an error
  2. Keep it simple Overly complicated debunkings confuse people and don’t work
  3. Watch the worldview Remember that sometimes you’re arguing against a worldview rather than a fact, and tread lightly
  4. Supply an alternative explanation Stating “that’s not true” is unlikely to work without replacing with an alternative

They even give some graphic/space arranging advice for those trying to put together a good debunking. Check it out.

The next paper is a different version of calling bullshit that starts to tread in to the academic trolling territory we discussed a few weeks ago, but stops short by letting everyone be in on the joke. It’s the paper “Neural correlates of interspecies perspective taking in the post-mortem Atlantic Salmon: An argument for multiple comparisons correction“, and it answers the age old question of “what happens when you put a dead fish in an MRI machine”. As it turns out, more than you’d think. It turns out they discovered statistically significant brain activity, even after death.

Or did they?

As the authors point out, when you are looking at 130,000 voxels, there’s going to be “significant” noise somewhere, even in a dead fish. Even using a p-value of .001, you still will get some significant voxel activity and some of those will almost certainly be near each other, leading to the “proof” that there is brain activity. There are statistical methods that can be used to correct for this, and they are widely available, but often underused.

By using traditional methods in such an absurd circumstance, the authors are able to call out a bad practice while not targeting anyone individually. Additionally, they make everyone a little more aware of the problem (reviewers and authors) in a memorable way. They also followed the debunking schema above and immediately provided alternative methods for analysis. Overall, a good way of calling bullshit with minimal fallout.

Finally, we have one more paper “Athletics:  Momentous sprint at the 2156 Olympics?” and its corresponding Calling Bullshit Case Study. This paper used a model to determine that women would start beating men in the 100 meter dash on an Olympic level in 2156. While the suspicion appears to be that the authors were not entirely serious and meant this to be a critique of modeling in general, some of the responses were pretty great. It turns out this model also proves that by 2636 races will end before they begin. I, for one, am looking forward to this teleportation breakthrough.

Yet again here we see a good example of what is sometimes called “highlighting absurdity by being absurd”. Saying that someone is extrapolating beyond the scope of their model sounds like a nitpicky math argument (ask me how I know this), but pointing out the techniques being used can prove ridiculous things makes your case pretty hard to argue with.

Ultimately, a lot of calling bullshit in statistics or science gets down to a lot of the same things we have to consider when confronting any other bad behavior in  life. Is it worth it? Is this the hill to die on? Is the problem frequent? Are you attacking the problem or the person? Do you know the person? Is anyone listening to the person/do they have a big platform? Is there a chance of making a difference? Are you sure you are not guilty of the same thing you’re accusing someone else of? Can humor get the job done?

While it’s hard to set any universal rules, these are about as close as I get:

  1. Media outlets are almost always fair game They have a wide reach and are (at least ostensibly) aiming to inform, so they should have bullshit called whenever you see it, especially for factual inaccuracies.
  2. Don’t ascribe motive I’ve seen a lot of people ruin a good debunking by immediately informing the person that they shared some incorrect fact because they are hopelessly biased/partisan/a paid shill/sheeple. People understandably get annoyed by that, and they react more defensively because of it. Even if you’re right about the fact in question, if you’re wrong about their motive that’s all they’ll remember. Don’t go there.
  3. Watch what you share Seriously, if everyone just did this one, we wouldn’t be in this mess.
  4. Your field needs you Every field has its own particular brand of bullshit, and having people from within that field call bullshit helps immensely.
  5. Strive for improvement Reading things like the debunking handbook and almost any of the readings in this course will help you up your game. Some ways of calling bullshit simply are more effective than others, and learning how to improve can be immensely helpful.

Okay, well that’s all I’ve got!

Since this is the end of the line for the class, I want to take this opportunity to thank Professors Bergstrom and West for putting this whole syllabus and class together,  for making it publicly available, and for sharing the links to my read-along. I’d also like to thank all the fun people who have commented on Twitter, the blog or sent me messages….I’m glad people enjoyed this series!

If you’d like to keep up with the Calling Bullshit class, they have  twitter,  facebook, and a  mailing list.

If you’d like to keep up with me, then you can either subscribe to the blog in the sidebar, or follow me on Twitter.

Thanks everyone and happy debunking!

Final Exam Rollercoasters

Last week I managed to take what I think is the last exam of my current degree program. I only have a practicum left, and since those are normally papers and projects, I’m feeling pretty safe in this assumption.

Now as someone who has gotten off and on the formal education carousel more than a few times, wracked up a few degrees and has been in the workforce for over a decade, you’d think I’d have learned how to control my emotions around test taking.

You’d be wrong.

I literally have the exact same reaction to tests that I had in first grade, though I use more profanity now. Every time I get near a test, my emotions go something like this:

I should note that this reaction is entirely unrelated to the following variables:

  1. How much I like the class
  2. How well I am doing prior to the test
  3. How much I have studied
  4. How much the test is worth
  5. How I actually do on the test

The following things are also true:

  1. Every time a test is put in front of me, I have a dreamlike moment where I believe I have sat down in the wrong class and that’s why nothing looks familiar. For language related tests, I believe all the words are in a different language.
  2. I have doubted every grade I have ever been given, believing that both good grades and bad grades are mistakes the professor is about to correct.
  3. The question “how do you think you did?” is completely flummoxing for me. I struggle to answer something other than “I have envisioned scenarios everywhere between a 20% and 100%, and they all feel equally plausible at the moment.”

Once I realized this pattern wasn’t going to stop, I actually felt much better. Now when I get the test I merely do one of those CBT type things where I go “ah yes, this is the part where I believe the test is written in Chinese. It’ll pass in a few minutes, just slog on until then”. It’s not that bad if you know it’s coming.

(I did fine by the way, thanks for asking)

Calling BS Read-Along Week 11: Fake News

Welcome to the Calling Bullshit Read-Along based on the course of the same name from Carl Bergstorm and Jevin West  at the University of Washington. Each week we’ll be talking about the readings and topics they laid out in their syllabus. If you missed my intro and want the full series index, click here or if you want to go back to Week 10 click here.

Guys, guys, it’s week 11! We’re down to our second to last read-along, and this week we’re tackling the topic that has recently skyrocketed in popularity public awareness: fake news. To give you a sense of how new this term is to public discussion, check out the Google trends history:

Now Google trends isn’t always the best way of figuring out how popular a search term is (the x-axis is a comparison of the term to its own peak of popularity) but it does let us know the interest in this term really took off after the US election in November and has not settled back down. Apparently when online fake news started prompting real life threats of nuclear war, people took notice.

But what is fake news exactly, and is it really a new phenomena? That’s the question our first reading sets out to answer. The article “Before Fake News Came False Prophecy” uses some British history to frame our current debate, and makes the assertion that “prophecy” about ones political opponents was the old time version of fake news. I hadn’t previously connected the idea of prophecy to the idea of fake news, but it really is the historic equivalent: guarantees that dark and terrible things will happen (or may already be happening) if your enemies are allowed to be (or remain) in charge. As the article says “Prophecy didn’t describe the world as it was, but as it was to be—or as it might become. That fantasy was more powerful than any lived reality. People killed and died for fantasies. People didn’t act politically because of what they had lost but because of what, in their most potent fantasy, they feared losing.”

With that framing, fake news becomes not just a tool of misinformation, but actually something that’s playing off our imagination. It blurs the line between “this is true because it happened” and “this is true because it might happen”.

Okay, so fake news is bad, but what is it really? The next reading from Factcheck.org actually takes that on a bit before they go in to the ever important “how to spot it” topic. They quote the guy who started Snopes and point out that “fake news” or fake stories made up by websites trying to make money is really a subset of “bad news” which is (as he puts it) “shoddy, unresearched, error-filled, and deliberately misleading reporting that does a disservice to everyone”.  I think the “this is just one branch of a tree of bad” point is an important point to keep in mind, and I’ll circle back to it later. That being said, there is something a little bit different about entirely fictitious stories, and there are some red flags you should look for. Factcheck gives a list of these,  such as anonymous authors, lots of exclamation points, links to sources that don’t support the story, and quoting “Fappy the Anti-Masturbation Dolphin” as a source. They also caution that you should always check the date on stories, as sometimes people attempt to connect true older stories to current events as though they were more recent. They also highlight people who don’t realize known satirists are satire (see the website Literally Unbelievable for a collection of people who don’t know about the Onion).

So why are we so worried about fake news? Can’t we just ignore it and debunk as needed? Well….maybe, but some of this is a little more organized than you may think. The next reading “The Agency” is a long but chilling New York Times investigation in to, some real world accounts of some rather scary fake news moments.  They start with a bizarre case of a reported but non-existent chemical plant explosion in Louisiana. This story didn’t just get reported to the media but was texted to people who lived nearby the plant, posted on Twitter with doctored local Louisiana news reports and the whole thing started trending on Twitter and getting picked up nationally while the actual chemical plant employees were still pulling themselves out of bed and trying to figure out what was going on. While no one really identified a motivation for that attack, the NYTs found links to suggest it was orchestrated by a group from Russia that employs 400 people to do nothing but spread fake news. This group works 12 hour days trolling the internet causing chaos in comments sections on various sites all over the place for purposes that aren’t clear to almost anyone, but with an end result of lots of aggravation for everyone.

Indeed, this appears to be part of the point. Chen’s investigation suggests that after the internet was used to mobilize protests in Russia few years ago, the government decided to hit back. If you could totally bog down political websites and comments sections with angry dreck, normal people wouldn’t go there. At best, you’d convince someone that the angry pro-government opinions were the majority and that they should play along. Failing that, you’d cut off a place where people might have otherwise gathered to express their discontent. Chen tracks the moves of the Russian group in to US events, which ultimately ends up including a campaign against him. The story of how they turned him from a New York Times reporter in to a neo-Nazi CIA recruiter is actually so bizarre and incredible I cannot do it justice, so go read the article.

Not every fake news story is coming out of a coordinated effort however, as yet another New York Times article discusses. Some of it is just from regular people who discovered that this is a really good way of making money. Apparently bullshit is a fairly lucrative business.

Slight tangent: After the election, a close family member of mine was reading an article on the “fake news” topic, and discovered he had actually gone to college with one of the people interviewed. The guy had created a Facebook group we had heard of that spewed fake and inflammatory political memes and was now making (allegedly) a six figure monthly salary to do so. The guy in question was also fairly insane (like “committed assault over a minor dorm dispute” type insane), and had actually expressed no interest in politics during college. In real life, he had trouble making friends or influencing people, but on the internet he turned his knack for conflict and pissing people off in to a hefty profit. Now I know this is just a friend of a friend story and you have now real reason to believe me, but I think the fundamental premise of “these news stories/memes might have creators who you wouldn’t let spend more than 5 minutes in your living room” is probably a good thing to keep in mind.

So why do people share these things? Well, as the next reading goes in to, the answer is really social signaling. When you share a news story that fits your worldview, you proclaim allegiance to your in-group. When you share a fake news story, you also probably enrage your out-group. By showing your in-group that you are so dedicated to your cause that you’re willing to sacrifice your reputation with your out-group, you increase your ties with them. The deeper motivations here are why simply introducing contradictory facts doesn’t always work (though they sometimes do – more on the most recent research on the “backfire effect” here), particularly if you get snarky about it. People may not see it as a factual debate, but rather a debate about their identity. Yikes. The article also mentions three things you can personally do to help 1) Correct normal errors, but don’t publicly respond to social signalling. 2) Make “people who value truth” your in-group and hold yourself to high standards 3) Leave room for satire, including satire of your own beliefs.

I endorse this list.

Finally, we take a look at how technology is adding to the problem, not just by making this stuff easier to share, but sometimes by promoting it. In the reading “Google’s Dangerous Identity Crisis“, we take a look at Google’s “featured” search results. These are supposed to be used to highlight basic information like “what time does the Superbowl start” but can also end up highlighting things like “Obama is planning a coup”. The identity crisis in question is whether Google exists simply to index sites on the web or whether it is verifying some of those sites as more accurate than others. The current highlighting feature certainly looks like an endorsement of a fact, but it’s really just an advanced algorithm that can be fooled pretty easily. What Google can or should be doing about that is up for debate.

Whew, okay, that was a lot of fake news, and a lot of depressing stuff. What would I add to this whole mess? Well, I really liked the list given in the CNN article. Not boosting people’s signalling, watching your own adherence to truth and keeping a sense of humor are all good things. They other thing I’ve found very effective is to try to have more discussions about politics with people I know and trust. I think online news stories (fake or not) are frequently like junk food: easy to consume and easy to overdo it with. Even discussions with friends who don’t agree with me can never match the quick hit vitriolic rush of 100 Twitter hot takes.

The second thing I’d encourage is to not let the “fake news” phenomena distract from the “bad news” issues that can be perpetuated by even respectable news sources. The FactCheck article quoted the guy from Snopes.com on this topic, and I think it’s important. Since the rise of the “fake news” phenomena, I’ve had a few people tell me that fact checking traditional media is no longer as important. That seems horribly off to me. Condemning fake news should be part of a broader movement to bring more accuracy to all of our news.

Okay, that’s all I’ve got for today. Check back in next week for the last class!

Mistakes Were Made, Sometimes By Me

A few weeks ago, I put out a call asking for opinions on how a blogger should correct errors in their own work. I was specifically interested in errors that were a little less clear cut than normal: quoting a study that later turned out to be less convincing it initially appeared (failed to replicate), studies whose authors had been accused of misconduct, or studies that had been retracted.

I got a lot of good responses, so thanks to everyone who voted/commented/emailed me directly. While I came to realize there is probably not a perfect solution, there were a few suggestions I think I am going to follow up on:

  1. Updating the individual posts (as I know about them) It seemed pretty unanimous that updating old posts was the right thing to do. Given that Google is a thing and that some of my most popular posts are from over a year ago, I am going to try to update old posts if I know there are concerns about them. My one limitation is not always indexing well what studies I have cited where, so this one isn’t perfect. I’ll be putting a link up in the sidebar to let people know I correct stuff.
  2. Creating a “corrected” tag to attach to all posts I have to update. This came out of jaed’s comment on my post and seemed like a great idea. This will make it easier to track which type of posts I end up needing to update.
  3. Creating an “error” page to give a summary of different errors, technical or philosophical, that I made in individual posts, along with why I made them and what the correction was. I want to be transparent about the type of error that trip me up. Hopefully this will help me notice patterns I can improve upon. That page is up here, and I kicked it off with the two errors I caught last month. I’m also adding it to my side bar.
  4. Starting a 2-4 times a year meta-blog update Okay, this one isn’t strictly just because of errors, though I am going to use it to talk about them. It seemed reasonable to do a few posts a year mentioning errors or updates that may not warrant their own post. If the correction is major, it will get its own post, but this will be for the smaller stuff.

If you have any other thoughts or want to take a look at the initial error page (or have things you think I’ve left off), go ahead and meander over there.

Calling BS Read-Along Week 10: The Ethics of Calling Bullshit

Welcome to the Calling Bullshit Read-Along based on the course of the same name from Carl Bergstorm and Jevin West  at the University of Washington. Each week we’ll be talking about the readings and topics they laid out in their syllabus. If you missed my intro and want the full series index, click here or if you want to go back to Week 9 click here.

Wow, week 10 already? Geez, time flies when you’re having fun. This week the topic is “the ethics of Calling Bullshit” and man is that a rich topic. With the advent of social media, there are more avenues than ever for both the perpetuation and correction of bullshit than ever before. While  most of us are acutely aware of the problems that arise with the perpetuating of bullshit, are there also concerns with how we go about correcting bullshit? Spoiler alert: yes. Yes there are. As the readings below will show, academia has been a bit rocked by this new challenge, and the whole thing isn’t even close to being sorted out yet. There are a lot more questions than answers raised this week.

Now, as a blogger who frequently blogs about things I think are kinda bullshit, I admit I have a huge bias in the “social media can be a huge force for good” direction. While I doubt this week’s readings will change my mind on that, I figured pointing out how biased I am and declaring my intention to fairly represent the opposing viewpoint might help keep me honest. We’ll see how it goes.

For the first reading, we’re actually going to take a look at a guy who was trolling before trolling was a thing and who may have single handedly popularized the concept of “scientific trolling”: Alan Sokal.  Back in 1994, long before most of the folks on 4chan were born, Sokal became famous for having created a parody paper called “Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity” that and getting it published in the journal Social Text as a serious work. His paper contained claims like “physical reality is a social construct” and that quantum field theory is the basis for psychoanalysis. Unfortunately for Social Text, they published it in a special “Science Wars” edition of their journal unchallenged. Why did he do this? In his own words: “So, to test the prevailing intellectual standards, I decided to try a modest (though admittedly uncontrolled) experiment: would a leading North American journal of cultural studies….publish an article liberally salted with nonsense if (a) it sounded good and (b) it flattered the editors’ idealogical preconceptions?” When he discovered the answer was yes, he published his initial response here.

Now whether you consider this paper a brilliant and needed wake up call or a cheap trick aimed at tarring a whole swath of people with the same damning brush depends largely on where you’re sitting. The oral history of the event is here (for subscribers only, I found a PDF copy here), does a rather fair job of getting a lot of perspectives on the matter. On the one hand, you have the folks who believe that academic culture needed a wake up call, and that they should be deeply embarrassed that no one knew the difference between a serious paper and one making fun of the whole field of cultural studies. On the other hand, you have those who felt that Sokal exploited a system that was acting in good faith and  gave its critics an opportunity to dismiss everything that comes out of that field. Both sides probably have a point. Criticizing the bad parts of a field while encouraging people to maintain faith in the good parts is an incredibly tough game to play. I got a taste of this after my first presentation to a high school class, when some of the kids walked away declaring that the best course action was to never believe anything scientific. Whether you agree with Sokal or not, I will suspect every respectable journal editor has been on the look out for hoaxes a little more vigilantly ever since that incident.

Next up is an interesting example of a more current scientific controversy that appears to be spinning way out of control: nano-imaging.  I’ll admit, I had no idea this feud was even going on, but this article reads more like a daytime TV plot than typical science reporting. There are accusations of misconduct, anonymous blog postings, attacks and counter attacks, all over the not particularly well known controversy of whether or not you can put stripes on nanoparticles. While the topic may be unfamiliar to most of us, the debate over how the argument is being approached is pretty universal. If you have a problem with someone else’s work and believe traditional venues for resolution are too slow, what do you do? Alternatively, what do you make of a critic who is mostly relying on social media to voice their concerns? These are not simple questions. As we’ve seen in many areas of life (most recently the airline industry), traditional venues do at times love to cover up their issues, silence critics and impede progress. On the other hand, social media is easily abused and sometimes can enable people with an agenda to spread a lot of criticism with minimal fact checking. From the outside, it’s hard to know what’s what. I had no opinion on the “stripes on nanoparticles” debate, and I have no way of judging who has the better evidence. I’m left with going with my gut on who’s sounding more convincing, which is completely the opposite of how we’re supposed to evaluate evidence. I’m intrigued for all the wrong reasons.

Going even further down the rabbit hole of “lots of questions not many answers”, the next reading is from Susan Fiske “Mob Rule or Wisdom of the Crowds” where she explains exactly how bad the situation is getting in psychology. She explains (though without names or sources) many of the vicious attacks she’s seen on people’s work and how concerning the current climate is. She sees many of the attacks as personal vendettas more focused on killing people’s careers than improving science, and calls the criticizers “methodological terrorists”. Her basic thesis is that hurting people is not okay, drives good people out of the field, and makes things more adversarial than they need to be.

Fiske’s letter got a lot of attention, and had some really good response opinions posted as well. One is from a researcher, Daniel Lakens, who wrote about his experience being impolitely called out on an error in his work. He realized that the criticism stung and felt unfair, but the more he thought about it the more true he realized it was. He changed his research practices going forward, and by the time a meta-analysis showed that the original criticism was correct, he wasn’t surprised or defensive. So really what we’re talking about here is a setup that looks like this:

Yeah, this probably should have had a z-axis for the important/unimportant measure, but my computer wasn’t playing nice.

It is worth noting that (people being people and all) it is very likely we all think our own critiques are more polite and important than they are, and that our critics are less polite  and their concerns less important than they may be.

Lakens had a good experience in the end, but he also was contacted privately via email. Part of Fiske’s point was that social media campaigns can get going, and then people feel attacked from all sides. I think it’s important that we don’t underestimate the social media effect here either, as I do think it’s different from a one on one conversation. I have a good friend who has worked in a psychiatric hospital for years, and he tells me that one of the first things they do when a patient is escalating is to get everyone else out of the room. The obvious reason for this is safety, but he said it is also because having an audience tends to amp people up beyond where they will go on their own. A person alone in a room will simply not escalate as quickly as someone who has a crowd watching. With social media of course, we always have a crowd watching. It’s hard to dial things back once they get going.

Some fields have felt this acutely. Andrew Gelman responds to Fiske’s letter here by giving his timeline of how quickly the perspective on the replication crisis changed, fueled in part by blogs and Twitter. From something that was barely talked about in 2011, to something that is pretty much a given now, we’ve seen people come under scrutiny they’ve never had before. Again, this is an issue shared by many fields….just ask your local police officer about cell phone cameras….but the idea that people were caught off guard by the change is pretty understandable. Gelman’s perspective however is that this was a needed ending to an artificially secure spot. People were counting on being able to cut a few corners with minimal criticism, then weren’t able to anymore. It’s hard to feel too much sympathy for that.

Finally we have an article that takes a look at PubPeer, a site that allows users to make anonymous post-publication comments on published articles. This goes about as well as you’d expect: some nastiness, some usefulness, lots of feathers ruffled. The site has helped catch some legitimate frauds, but has also given people (allegedly) an outlet to pick on their rivals without fear of repercussion or disclosing conflicts of interest. The article comes out strongly against the anonymity provided and calls the whole thing “Vigilante Science”. The author goes particularly hard after the concept that anonymity allows people to speak more freely than they would otherwise, and points out that this also allows people to be much meaner, more petty, and possibly push an agenda harder than they could otherwise.

Okay, so we’ve had a lot of opinions here, and they’re all over the graph I made above. If you add in the differences in perception of tone and importance of various criticisms, you can see easily why even well meaning people end up all over the map on this one. Additionally, it’s worth nothing that there actually are some non-well meaning people exploiting the chaos in all of this, and they complicate things too. Some researchers really are using bad practices and then blaming others when they get called out. Some anonymous commenters really are just mouthing off or have other motivations for what they’re saying.

As I said up front, it should not come as a shock to anyone that I tend to fall on the side of appreciating the role of social media in science criticism. However, being a blogger, I have also received my fair share of criticism  from anonymous sources and have a lot of sympathy for the idea that criticism is not always productive as well. The graph I did a few paragraphs ago really reflects my three standards for criticism I give and receive. There’s no one size fits all recommendation for every situation, but in general I try to look at these three things:

  1. Correct/incorrect This should be obvious, but your criticism should be correct. If you’re going to take a shot at someone else’s work, for the love of God make sure you’re right. Double points if you have more than your own assertion to back you up. On the other hand, if you screw up, you can expect some criticism (and you will screw up at some point). I’m doing a whole post on this later this week.
  2. Polite/impolite In general, polite criticism is received better than impolite criticism. It’s worth noting of course that “polite” is not the same as “indirect”, and that frequently people confuse “direct” for “rude”. Still, politeness is just….polite. Particularly if you’ve never raised the criticism before, it’s probably best to start out polite.
  3. Important/unimportant How important is it that the error be pointed out? Does it change the conclusions or the perspective?

These three are not necessarily independent variables. A polite note about a minor error is almost always fine. On the other hand it can be hard to find a way of saying “I think you’ve committed major fraud” politely, though if you’re accusing someone of that you DEFINITELY want to make sure you have your ducks in a row.  I think the other thing to consider is how easy the criticism is to file through other means. If you create a system where people have little recourse, where all complaints or criticisms are dismissed or minimized, people will start using other means to make complaints. This was part of Sokal’s concern in the first reading. How was a physicist supposed to make a complaint with the cultural studies department and actually be listened to? I’m no Sokal, but personally I started this blog because I was irritated with the way numbers and science were getting reported in the media, and putting all my thoughts in one place seemed to help more than trying to email journalists who almost never seemed to update anything.

When it comes to the professional realm, I think similar rules apply. We’re all getting used to the changes social media has brought, and it is not going away any time soon. We’re headed in to a whole new world of ethics where many good people are going to disagree. Whether you’re talking about research you disagree with or just debating with your uncle at Thanksgiving, it is worth thinking about where your lines are and what battles you want to fight and how you want to fight them.

Okay, that wraps up a whole lot of deep thoughts for the week, see you next week for some Fake News!

Week 11 is up! Get your fake news here!

State Level Representation: Graphed

I got in to an interesting email discussion this past weekend about a recent Daily Beast article “The Republican Lawmaker Who Secretly Created Reddit’s Women-Hating ‘Red Pill’“, that ended up sparking a train of thought mostly unrelated to the original topic (not uncommon for me). The story is an investigation in to a previously anonymous user who started an infamous subreddit, and the Daily Beast’s discovery that he was actually an elected official in the New Hampshire House of Representatives.

Given that I am originally from New Hampshire and all my family still lives there, I was intrigued by the story both for the “hey! that’s my state!” factor and the “oh man, the New Hampshire House of Representatives is really hard to explain to a national audience” level. Everyone I was emailing with either lives in New Hampshire or grew up there (as I did), so the topic quickly switched to how unusual the New Hampshire state legislature is, and how it’s hard for a national news outlet to truly capture that. For starters, the NH state House of Representatives has nearly as many seats (400) as the US House of Representatives (435), and double the number of seats of the next closest state (Pennsylvania with 200), all while having a state population of a little over 1 million people. Next is the low pay. For their service, those 400 people make a whopping $200 dollars for a two year term. Some claim this is not the lowest paying gig in the state level representation game, since other states like New Mexico pay no salary, but a quick look at this page shows that those state pay a daily per diem that would quickly go over $200. New Hampshire has no per diem, meaning most members of the House will spend more in gas money than they make during their term.

As you can imagine, this set up does not pull from a random sample of the population.

This conversation got me thinking about how often state level politicians get quoted in news articles, and got me wondering about how we interpret what those officials do. Growing up in NH gave me the impression that most state level representatives didn’t have much power, but in my current state (Massachusetts) they actually do have some clout and frequently move on to higher posts.

This of course got me curious about how other states did things. When lawmakers from individual states make the news, I suspect most of us assume that they operate much the same way as lawmakers in our own state do and that could lead to confusion about how powerful/not powerful the person we’re talking about really is. Ballotpedia breaks state legislatures down in to 3 categories: full time or close (10 states), high part-time (23 states), low part-time (17 states). A lot of that appears to have to do with the number of people you are representing. I decided to do a few graphs to illustrate.

First, here is the size of each states “lower house” vs the number of people each lower house member represents:

Note: Nebraska doesn’t have a lower house, at least according to Wikipedia. NH and CA are pretty clear outliers in terms of size and population, respectively.

State senates appear much less variable:

So next time you read an article about a state level representative doing something silly, keep this graph in mind. For some states, you are talking about a fairly well compensated person with lots of constituents, who probably had to launch a coordinated campaign to get their spot and may have higher ambitions. For other states, you’re talking about someone who was willing to show up.

Here’s the data  if you’re in to that sort of thing. I got the salary data here, the state population data here and the number of seats in the house here. As always, please update me if you see any errors!